Added a guinea pig / cavy to the family. I have been watching her at the pet store for about 2 months and finally couldn't resist any longer. Thinking of calling her Trifle as she is a tortie & white. She's been home about 24 hours and things are going well so far. Lola is not hugely impressed but has not flipped her lid, either.
Lola and Trifle
Ready for her closeup
Her right side has all black markings (with white) and her left side has all red markings (with white) except where a black splash spills over her back. Unusual and stunning. It is like having two pigs in one! I haven't had an abyssinian in a long time, I forgot how cute their crazy fur is.
While Jefferson waxes rhetorical with observations about slavery and
speculation about black physiology in the "Laws" section of Notes on the State of Virginia,
the "Manners" section seems to give a snapshot of his actual judgement
about slavery. He fears that the wrath of God will come down on the new
Republic and observes "The spirit of the master is abating, that of the
slave rising from the dust" (p 175).
Returning to the "Laws"
section of the text, we see Jefferson's observations about the very
nature of blacks. While our essay prompt mockingly refers to 'science',
this was cutting edge science for Jefferson and his
contemporaries and these were serious concerns of the day. Jefferson
proffers many differences between blacks and whites, not only
"political", but also "physical and moral" (p 149). He argues that upon
the emancipation of the blacks in the Republic, they should be given a
fresh start in a new land and be replaced by white immigrants; they
cannot be incorporated into the Republic due to "Deep rooted prejudices
entertained by the whites" and "ten thousand recollections by the blacks
of the injuries they have sustained" (p 149). He goes on to delineate
ways in which blacks are different from (read: inferior to) whites in
their most basic attributes. He remarks that they are less attractive
than whites, their bodies process waste differently from whites, giving
them a "strong and disagreeable odor" but also makes them "more tolerant
of heat, and less so of cold than whites" (p 150). Jefferson continues
by stating that blacks require less sleep, use less forethought, and
are more ruled by sex than romance than whites. In fact, he summarizes
nicely for us his position when he says "In general, their existence
appears to participate more of sensation than reflection" (p150).
modern reader at this point is tempted to raise a query at this point -
what about blacks who were not slaves, or who became free and gained an
education? Here Jefferson compares the idea of an educated black
writer to a white one: "though we admit him to the first place among
those of his own color who have presented themselves to the public
judgment ....when we compare him with [a white writer] we are compelled
to enroll him at the bottom of the column" (p 152). Jefferson does not
waver from his theory of black inferiority, even citing
examples of enslaved whites who were far "smarter" than his contemporary
enslaved blacks in America, and under supposed far harsher conditions
(p154). Clearly he does not support the idea that slavery itself is the
For Jefferson, the only way that the idea of
emancipation could be entertained was by putting forth the idea of
removing all freed blacks from the American (white) Republic. He again
contrasts the American situation to that of ancient Rome: Among the
Romans emancipation required but one effort. The slave, when made free,
might mix with, without staining the blood of his master. But with us a
second is necessary, unknown to history. When freed, he is to be removed
beyond the reach of mixture." (p 155).
The Scylla socks are moving right along - I am working the heel of sock 1 now. Only 9 days left to go in the Olympics though so I had better keep up the pace.
The Marigold / Meadow Flowers shawl is also moving along well. I finished both inner sections and am gearing up to start the two outer sections. Beads have been obtained although I need to find my handy dandy breading crochet hook pretty soon.
Fritti the kitty is still acting odd, so it is back to the vet again Monday. Wish us luck!
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database is a useful tool for
accessing information about who enslaved people were, where they
originated from and where they were sold. We can combine these three parameters and begin to draw conclusions about how the slave trade shaped the American South.
first table of data isolates the regions in North America where
enslaved Africans were received. At the start of the slave trade, there
was a small total number of slaves and the difference between the
colony with the fewest slave sales and the most is not very great. In
the hundred years of the 18th century, however, the number of slaves
increased dramatically, particularly in Virginia and South Carolina,
which had plantations and cash crops. Slave importation for most other
colonies did not increase as drastically, although a couple of colonies
began importation during this time. When compared to the total quantity
of people sold into slavery during the slave trade (12 million), the
North American colonies were an afterthought with a total import number
of just over 366,000 people.
The second table of data isolates
the regions of origin of the enslaved Africans who were transported to
the North American colonies. Please note: this export figure of 242,000
is 1/3 less than the import figure discussed above. While locations of
origin were spread along the coast, at the beginning of the slave trade
the regions of the Bight of Biafra and West Central Africa were the
first large scale exporters to the colonies. As the demand for slaves
increased in the 18th century the areas of Sierra Leone, Windward Coast
and Gold Coast jumped far ahead of the others in both percentage
increase and overall number of slaves sent abroad. Interestingly, West
Central Africa continued to export large numbers of people throughout
this time and even into the 19th century when supply from the other
regions either tapered off or was dramatically reduced.
table of data combines the information we have already reviewed and
shows which specific areas enslaved people were taken from and where
they were bought in the colonies. While most colonies (northerly and
southerly) had slaves originating from all regions, primarily the
plantation economy colonies had slaves who originated in West Central
Africa or the Bight of Biafra.
These charts are a useful
resource for looking at the data of the slave trade. The specificity of
the information begins to rehumanize the very idea of a "slave trade";
knowing that people were taken, sold and transported between specific
ports brings them closer to us. Unfortunately, the tables do not tell
the whole story. The reasons why the southern colonies received large
numbers of people from these regions is not revealed by the tables;
could it have been price, supply, cultural attitude (temperament) or a
combination of all these? We are given points of disembarkation, but as
so many enslaved people were captured & sold by rivals, enemies or
human traffickers, where did they actually live before their journey
began? Working with raw data and tables like these, while interesting,
is just the start of the story of the slave trade and its shaping of the